Project Risks Response Strategy Essay

Project Risks Response Strategy

Project Risks Response Strategy

Risk response strategies refer to a systematic way in which the risks that have been identified in the new office project can be contained, reduced or eliminated (Simon et al., 1997). The criteria followed in developing the risk response strategies ensured that the strategies were realistic, cost effective, timely, and acceptable throughout the organization. However, the most important aspect of the strategies was the fact that they were proportional to the severity of the identified risks. The response tools and techniques ensured that both positive and negative risks were rightly addressed. A contingent response strategy was also developed to cater for any unprecedented hitches.

The strategies used to combat the negative risks (threats) include avoidance, transfer, acceptance, and mitigation. Risk avoidance may involve relaxing relevant objectives and modifying the project plan with the aim of risk elimination. The negative risks that cannot be avoided are approached using the other available alternatives. Risk transfer will involve moving the risk to another third party who will carry the risk. Risk mitigation comes before the occurrence of the risk and is aimed at reducing the impact in the event of such occurrence.

The strategies that will be used for positive risks (opportunities) will include exploiting, sharing and enhancing. Exploiting strategies involves putting in place measures that will ensure that the risk occurs. It therefore involves removing any uncertainty about the risk. Sharing the risk involves allocating a portion of risk ownership to a qualified third party for better quality. Enhancing involves increasing the likelihood of occurrence.

Risk acceptance will be used in the project for both positive and negative risks. Risk acceptance implies that the strategies for positive and negative risks are insufficient to deal with the inherent risk. The acceptance can be active and passive acceptance. Active acceptance involves creation of a contingency plan that can be used in the event that the risk occurs. Passive acceptance means that no plan is developed and the project tem has to deal with the risks when they arise.

The project will use risk mitigation strategies to take care of the integration risks. Integration risks refer to those risks that the project might face in a quest to entrench the project into the organization culture (Project Management Institute, 2009). As part of ensuring that such risks do not occur or their impact is reduced, the project will engage in a training and simulation program. The aim of this will be to familiarize the employees with the new operating environment and technology. The training and simulation program will also be useful in creating buy-in and reducing resistance. The scope of the project will be considerably reduced in order to avoid the scope risks.

According to the results of the project risk analysis, communication risk was described as the most serious threat to the project. This was followed by scope risk, executive support risk, and design risk respectively. The project, however, had little to worry about when it comes to the threat posed by resource and technical risks. In order to respond to the inherent risks, the company will employ risk strategies which include; avoidance, transfer, mitigation and acceptance. The specific strategy that is employed in each case will aim to minimize the project’s overall risk at all costs (Simon et al., 1997). From the SWOT Analysis, the risks that are identified as threats to the project will be avoided, mitigated and transferred. However, those identified as opportunities will be exploited, enhanced and shared. The risks that cannot be solved through the use of any of the named strategies will be accepted.

Avoidance of a risk involves removing the stimulating factor or the causative agent responsible for the risk. Alternatively, these risks will be avoided through embracing a different approach in project execution Simon et al., 1997). The scheduling risk of the project will be dealt with through avoidance. This is done with an aim of ensuring that the project is completed in a timely fashion. The project time limit will be made flexible to cater for any time loss and enabling extension of the project. The phases of the project will also be clearly defined for the workers to understand.

The company can enhance some of the positive risks facing the project. For instance, communication can greatly benefit the company is properly used by the project. While communication is ranked as the least risky aspect of the project, it can significantly impact the implementation. The risk management team, therefore, intends to avoid communication related risks by removing all the communication barriers (Hillson, 1999). For instance, the team that is responsible for implementing the project will come from a known unit within the organization and will work under familiar authority. This will give them ease while communicating with each other.

Risk mitigation involves the strategies that have been put in place to address adverse risks to acceptable levels (Project Management Institute, n.d.). It involves taking early action to reduce the probability and impact of the risk within the project implementation. Given the importance attached to quality, it is vital that the management employs risk mitigation to take care of the technical risks. The measures will involve using certified company and industry standards while working on the project. These predetermined standards will be instrumental in clearly defining the

Risk transfer is usually ideal in dealing with financial risk exposure (Wideman, 1992).. Through this means, the company can be able to operate seamlessly while the appointed third party bears the risk. In this specific case, the technical risk presents the most pressing threat to the plan given the magnitude of the risk. There is a major concern if the software products being used in the project will be obsolete in the near future thus necessitating frequent updates. To avoid this risk, the company intends to invite competitive tenders for companies that will supply long-term software needs that will support the program and operations of the business. In the submitted bids, the company will look for companies that guarantee replacement of outdated software at no extra charge on the company.

Risk transfer will also be used to ensure that the resource risks are well contained. Since the resource risks can arise from price fluctuations and supply of improper materials, the company will commit the suppliers to a contract (Project Management Institute, 2009). This will ensure that the quality of materials supplied is within the required standards. There will be fixed price contracts that will ensure that the hoods being supplied are within the specified prices despite the fluctuations in material price. This ensures stability with the implementation of the office project. The employees who work on the project will also commit to a performance contract. This will be essential in ensuring that they stay within the requirements of the project and deliver quality work. Risk transfer strategy will thus improve efficiency and quality.

The success of the project will largely depend on the level of support it receives. This is why managerial buy-in is integral to ensure success of the project. The Executive support risk will be advanced through an intensive awareness campaign. To help the management to make a support decision on the project, there will be presentation of specific, measurable, attainable, and realistic time bound objectives.

Sharing of the risk involves bringing a qualified third party on board to improve the quality (Wideman, 1992). Given the fact that the ICT department has never engaged in such a project, it will be wise to outsource experts to help avoid the design risks. This sharing will prove useful since the employees in the company will also get to learn from an outside source. This could be instrumental in future projects of the company.

The following updated table shows the strategies taken by the business to address each risk;


Likelihood of Occurrence


Overall (2X2)



Scheduling Risk






Resource Risk






Executive Support Risk






Scope Risk






Design Risk






Technical Risk






Integration Risks






Communication Risks






From the Threats and Opportunities identified in the risk identification phase, the following schedule was developed to help in responding to the risk.

For Threats

For Opportunities



Scheduling Risk; These are the risks that might lead to delay in the project. The scheduling risks are to be avoided through flexible time frame of the project and clearly stating the time for each project phase

 Executive Support Risk: These are risks that have to do with management buy-in. The project hopes to exploit this by encouraging everyone to back the project. This will also help ease the training and simulation phase before implementation kicks off.







Technical Risks: This risk is going to be addressed through engaging with third parties who will be responsible for supply of software needed by the project.

Resource Risk; This are risks that pertain to the material and human resource needed for the project. This risk will be transferred to the contractors and employees who will sign performance contracts to compensate in the event of damage

The risk will also be transferred through signing contracts with suppliers to ensure that the

Design Risks; These are risks associated with the architecture. They will be shared between the team and another professional group that will offer an insight that will be useful to the ICT team.





Technical Risks;These are risks that affect the quality of the project. The technical risks will be mitigated through the use of predetermined industry and company standards to make decisions that involve quality addition within the project

Communication Risks; These are risks that deal with communicating the requirements and objectives of the project. They will be addressed by ensuring that a cohesive team is built to address the needs of the project.






This strategy is useful in the situations where the risk can neither be managed through the positive risk strategies or the negative risk strategies.

The contingency risk stated below will be accepted as part of addressing the risks.


The responsibility will be allocated to the team members to take leadership of each risk response. Their task will include monitoring if the risks are being responded to in the appropriate way (Hillson, 1999). To avoid any conflict of interest, no single member of the team will have more than one role to perform in tracking the risk response.

Contingency Plan

While the strategies explained above will help in addressing the anticipated risks, there are certain that will occur during the project. There is need to create effective tools to manage such risks through the use of a contingency plan (Project Management Institute, 2009). This plan will ensure that all risks that are not accounted for are catered for whenever they arise. Intermediate milestones of the project are to be well placed and tracked throughout the project to cater for any arising risk. There will be a separate financial reserve left to cater for any financial risk that might occur during the project implementation. The contingency allowance also specified the acceptable time and resources that will be used in the event of unprecedented risk. In the event that the demand for time, resources and finances exceed those in the contingency plan, there will be need to halt the project and reevaluate its feasibility and desirability given the fresh demands.


Cooper, D. F. (2005). Project risk management guidelines managing risk in large projects and complex procurements. West Sussex, England: J. Wiley.

Hillson, D. (1999). Developing Effective Risk Responses. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Project Management Institute 1999 Seminars & SymposiumPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania.

Lehman, B. (2007, February 1). Project Risk Management. Mortgage Banking.

Metheny, M. (2013). Risk Response Strategies. Retrieved from

Project Management Institute. (n.d.)A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) – Fourth Edition

Project Management Institute. (2009), Practice standard for project risk management (4th ed.). Newtown Square, Pa.

Simon, Peter W., Hillson, David A., Newland, Ken E. (eds.) 1997. Project Risk Analysis & Management (PRAM) Guide. High Wycombe, Bucks HP11 2DX, UK : Association for Project Management. ISBN 0.9531590.0.0.

Wideman, R. M. (1992). Project and program risk management: a guide to managing project risks and opportunities (Prelim. ed.). Drexel Hill, PA: Project Management Institute.

Gimpel the Fool Essay

Gimpel the fool

In the story “Gimpel the fool”, Gabriel Garcia has spiced up every chapter with a lot of literature figures that include: metaphors, irony among others. The story is a short fiction and its story line is about Gimpel the fool and each episode remains interesting thus making it to pass an educative message to all readers. The question many people ask themselves after reading the story is Gimpel a wise man or a fool? Although, Gimpel is portrayed as a fool he is indeed a wise man and one compare him to an angel. Gimpel shows that he is a wise man by loving all children whether they are his or not. Indeed he is not swayed by any temptation and he takes the advantage of what others say about him to do the good things. For example, at school kids call him a fool but he remains sympathetic to other in what he does (Singer, 2006).

As a matter of fact, Gimpel is an honest person and all through the story he shines and whatever he took place he just tells us exactly how it happened and the place the incident happened. In the introduction, it is shown that he doesn’t make any lie and he takes the Wisdom of the Fathers. To this effect, Gimpel does not listen to what other people talk about him but he does what he thinks is right and this makes him very wise as compared to other characters in the story. In addition to this, Gimpel is nonviolent as shown from the revelation of the author which shows that he is physically abused by his wife and his “brothers” who assaults him but Gimpel endures all the pain. Generally we can conclude that Gimpel is wise man and not a fool as many people in the story take him to be a fool.

Works cited

Singer, Isaac B. Gimpel the Fool and Other Stories. New York, NY: Farrar, Strau and Giroux, 2006. Print.

The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World

Essay On The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World

Magical realism refers to a stylistic technique that combines fantasy and what is real in a way that the reader will accept it as real. Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s, “Handsomest Drowned Man in the World,” is a magical story based on the fact that the dead man stunned the villagers by his size and beauty. In that regard, the villager’s disbelief at the size of the dead man is unique and even though they looked at him, there was to be no room for him in the villagers’ imaginations.

In the story, instances of magic in the real world include: the supposed changes in nature that was caused by the dead man becoming a subject of wonder and attracting people from far villages. The man is deemed responsible for the sea’s restlessness and steadiness makes the story seemingly unreal. The author also uses personification to enhance the reader’s feeling of magic by asserting that the sun was too bright to an extent that the flowers didn’t know which way to turn.

The village’s treatment of the handsomest drowned man compare to the villagers treatment of the old man in “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings,” in the sense that they both feature supernatural beings that surge into the lives of two separate villages. They spark different reactions, with the dead man being given a name and even personality with the villagers preparing a splendid send off for him and him changing the villages’ way of life in “The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World.”

In “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings,” the poor angelic figure is treated as a freak who allowed others to benefit from him causing people to wonder about his identity. For instance, Elisenda, the wife of the family that profits from the angelic figure is relieved when the figure flies in the end.

The difference in the two men is evident when it comes to how the author challenges human attitudes. In the first story, the author explores how human beings mythologize and draw meaning of life through attaching stories and even legends on events and heroes. In the second story, the author explains how human beings’ desire to extract meaning is self-defeating and ludicrous. The villagers’ attention shifts to the presence of the angelic figure to an extent of them ignoring the actual figure(Pelayo 69).Hence, Marquez tries to assert that there is little meaning that can be found from the events, especially complex ones that befall human beings.

Works cited

Pelayo, Rubén. Gabriel Garcia Marquez: A Critical Companion. London: Greenwood Pr, 2001. Print.

Braggioni Essay


Katherine Anne Porter in her story “Flowering Judas” uses a lot of symbolism and thematic unity of characters in the whole story. The author of the story employs a lot of flashbacks and the events are given chronologically. The theme centers on the Obregon Revolution of 1920s in Mexico. The story begins with Laura who is from America who goes on to teach English to children in Mexico. She plays a vital role in the revolution. At home is Braggioni, who is the leader of the revolution tries to seduce Laura into a romantic relationship by singing to her but Laura does not give in and Braggioni goes back and reconciles with his wife who has been suffering for very long period of time.

Porter portrays Braggioni as a betrayer in that though he is the leader of the revolution that was taking place in Mexico he maintains this position by using intimidation and spying. In addition to this, he loves pleasure in and though he has a wife who he has been in love with for a very long period of time he is unfaithful to her. Braggioni leaves his wife to suffer for a very long time and goes to the home of Laura where he tries to seduce her to a romantic relationship by singing to her but Laura turns down his request and Braggioni is forced to go back to his long suffering wife (Bloom, 2005). Furthermore, Braggioni loves luxury as depicted by the fine clothes that he wears and the rich food that he indulges making him obese. Porter tells us that it is with the luxury that Braggioni indulges in, that makes him to pursue Laura for love.

Works cited

Bloom, Harold. Short Story Writers and Short Stories. Philadelphia, Pa: Chelsea House Publ, 2005. Print.

Mrs. Turpin in Opportunity for Grace Essay

>Mrs. Turpin in Opportunity for Grace

In all her stories, Flannery O’Connor often uses the Southern setting where characters are given chances to attain divine forgiveness and grace. These opportunities to attain grace and forgiveness are often brought in O’Connor’s books in very strange ways. All these distinctive attributes in her writings are also presented in O’Connor’s short story, “Revelation.” Ultimately, when Mrs. Turpin’s chance to attain grace comes, it comes through a violent act. In this short story, a Southern woman named Ruby Turpin, who is known for her extreme pride, has a book literally hit her when a bizarrely-looking aggressive young woman known as Mary Grace. Just by the symbolism of her name, that is, Grace, O’Connor presents the theme of salvation and redemption.

After the assault that Mrs. Turpin suffers from Mary Grace, she slowly by slowly begins to leave her wicked ways and starts learning a lesson from God. The kind of violence that led to Mrs. Turpin’s attainment of grace is typical of O’Connor’s writings. The same violence is also evident in her other books “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” and “Everything That Rises Must Converge,” although in these two, the violent acts occur towards the conclusions, while in “Revelation” violence takes place early in the story. It is at the end of the story that Mrs. Turpin experiences “revelation” and thus, the title of the short story. This revelation and attainment of grace is very immense as she reiterates her imagination of “whole companies of white trash, clean for the first times in their lives, and bands of black niggers in white robes moving toward heaven and salvation” (34). In addition, the people that Mrs. Turpin had always regarded as inferiors became worthy of the love of Christ, while herself, she seemed to be hopeful that she could actually be worthy of that kind of love.

The Southern Elements in the Story

Just as in her other stories, O’Connor’s setting is in the culture and environment she understand best—the Southern culture, thus the presence of numerous southern elements in her stories including in “Revelation.” In this story, everything regarding the setting, characters, and conversations are Southern, aspects that are also highlighted in “Faulkner and Welty and the Southern Literary Tradition” (Polk 2008). The specific use of the Southern setting in her stories does not however make O’Connor’s stories hidebound. In fact, her stories tackle universal matters, especially the subject of sin and salvation.” In “Revelation,” the trend is the same, as details relevant to the South abound. First, the Turpins earn their living through farming, a clear indication that the story is dealing with a majorly rural area in the country.

In addition, the radio was playing gospel music and that “…the nasal chorus on the radio” (14) makes the story more probably in the South where nasal consonants occur in dialects. The southern setting of the story is evident through the wordings used in the story, particularly on two phrases that have been repeatedly used in almost every page of the story. The author also refers to other characters as “white-trashy” (4, 5, 6, 7) a phrase mainly used in the Southern setting. The story also uses a casual racism, which is implied by the use of the word “nigger” (10, 11) is also evident of the use of a Southern setting, whereby racial segregation was an accepted fact of life.


O’Connor, Flannery . Revelation: In Everything That Rises Must Converge. Washington: Dream Letters, 2014. Print.

Polk, Noel. Faulkner and Welty and the Southern Literary Tradition. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008. Print.


Legal Organization Essay

Legal organization

The legal organization that the proposed business assumes will be a partnership.In choosing this business orientation for our proposed organic farming initiative; various factors were put into consideration. Liability, profit/loss sharing, decision making and control, continuity and agency were considered. After carefully weighing the pros and cons associated with these factors, a partnership was considered the ideal choice. The source of financing, product acceptance, financial risk, and workload were also carefully weighed in to come up with the decision.


The partnership was chosen because it was advantageous in terms of financial risk for the investors. Within the partnership, one member volunteered to be a general partner. This created room for other people to freely join the initiative. The advantage of this approach is that more people are willing to join in the partnership since their liability is limited (Brigham and Huston, 17). This implies that if the organic business fails to kick off due to heavy liability, their personal property will not be attached to the debt.The partnership is thus a limited partnership with freely transferable interest.

However, the main financial advantage of the partnership is the ability to pool funds fromdifferent sources. This ensures that no one single investor commits a lot of money. The ability to pool numerous investors also provides cushion for the investors in the event that the business makes loss. Losses will be expected in the initial year of the project as capital expenditure is being catered for by the business. The investors will be able to share in the losses during this particular period before they start reaping profits. The other advantage of this form of legal organization is the sill variety. The members of the partnership will have skills that will complement each other (Jackson, 1). The incentive of becoming a partner and owning a part of the business is also hopped to attract employees who will be dedicated to the business’ course. The business will also have a better chance of raising capital due to the increased number of partners. The partnership is also a good prospect since there is no double taxation.

Disadvantages and How to Deal with them

The agency problem is one of the anticipated problems. This problem arises when the company hires outside help to deal with the business’ affairs (Short, 4). To solve this problem the partnership has opted to create a management team from the existing partners. The company will source for qualified partners to run the organization. In the event that the pool of partners fails to make the cut, the company will make the managers partners within the organization. This helps in avoiding conflict of interest that is brought about by the agent-principle relationship.

The other disadvantage that is usually related to partnerships is the fact that all partners equally share losses due to risks of few partners. To ensure that this does not happen, the business will put the general partners in the board of management and the limited partners will have little participation in the daily running of the organization (Jackson, 1). This approach has been taken because the general partners have more to lose when reckless decisions are made than the limited partners.

SWOT Analysis


  • Ability to raise capital with ease
  • Ability to attract employees who hope to be partners
  • Wealth of knowledge, experience, and skills in the partners

  • Unlimited liability on the general partners
  • Sharing of losses even in the case of an individual partner’s mistake

  • Increased ability to raise funds
  • The business will remain operational despite the change in partnership composition
  • Chance to benefit from non-taxation of the partnership i.e. no double taxation.

  • The agency problem
  • Reckless decision making by certain partners

Works cited

Brigham, Eugene F., and Joel F. Houston.Fundamentals of financial management. 10th ed. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western, 2004. Print.

Jackson, Tom. “The advantages and disadvantages of setting up an LLC. (Ask the lawyer).(Limited Liability Company)(Brief Article).” Air Conditioning, Heating & Refrigeration News 5 Aug. 2002: 2. Print.

Short, Tony. The forms of legal organization for small business enterprises: a submission. Adelaide, S. Aust.: South Australian Institute of Technology, 1984. Print.

Judean Monarch Essay


Since the founding of the Israelite nation from the patriarchal father, Jacob later known as Israel the nation was monotheistic believing in only one God who had blessed Abraham and later rescued the nation from 400 years of captivity in Egypt. God then appointed judges to rule over the people starting with Joshua who delivered them from the warring nations around them and ending with Samuel. Samuel later anointed Saul as the first Israelite king after people had demanded for a human king. After Saul’s disobedience of YHWH where he had refused to kill all inhabitants and animals from Philistia, Samuel was ordered by God to anoint and transfer the kingship to Judah, to the family of Jesse where David was anointed as the next king of Israel. He took up the kingdom of Israel after Saul’s death marking the beginning of Judean Monarch.

After the death of King Solomon, Northern Israel split under their first king Jeroboam leaving the south kingdom, with only two tribes Judah and Benjamin, from the twelve tribes of Israel. The Judean Monarch continued to exist even after the breakaway of Northern Israel until the Babylonian exile under King Nebuchadnezzar. The Judean monarch was from the start to the end ruled by the line of David, son of Jesse of the tribe of Judah. This was in line with YHWH promise to King David that he was not to build God a house; instead God would build him a house, meaning an eternal kingdom from which Jesus traces his roots. The Psalms is divided into five books that most scholars believe was written over the kingship of King David to the Babylonian captivity. Some psalms can be traced to King David while the rest were written by different authors.

Judean Monarchy

The Judean Monarchy was located in the Ancient Near Eastern Region in the Mediterranean. It had its capital in Jerusalem where the king’s palace and the Holy YHWH Temple was located. The kingdom was hereditary and ruled only by the line of David. David and Solomon ruled all the twelve tribes of Israel, while King Rehoboam up to the Babylonian captivity the Kingdom only ruled only true tribes that is, Judah and Benjamin. The temple was built by King Solomon and it played a great role in the kingdom.

Role of YHWH

Unlike most kingdoms and empires in the Ancient Near East the Judean Monarch only worshipped one God, YHWH. Judeans believed YHWH was the creator of the world, through the first man, Adam and Eve and was also the provider and controller of the universe. He had blessed the Israelite nation through their forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob/ Israel who was the father of the nation. It was Abraham who God promised the land of Canaan as the inheritance of his people Israel. God had also delivered the country from 400 years slavery in Egypt through Moses through a mighty victory over the Egyptian army and crossing over the Red Sea. God had also given Moses the great prophet, the Ten Commandmentswhich acted as the laws that governed the Judean Monarch. The laws guarding the life of Israelites were also stated in the Torah commanded by Yahweh.

Unlike other kingdoms at the time the king was not considered as a God, as it happened in the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Egyptian, Persian / Median and later Greek kingdoms. YHWH was the only God with the king his anointed earthly representative. The kings always consulted YHWH through prophets and prophetesses when making decisions concerning wars, droughts, construction and other kingdom issues. YHWH was the highest deity and unlike other gods in the region at the time, YHWH could not be carved as an idol, but rather his presence was everywhere (Grant 2011, 139-187).

In Psalms 2, it is clear that the Judean monarch was surrounded by many adversariesfrom all directions. These are the kingdoms of Assyria to the North, Egypt to the south, and the Babylonian kingdom to the East. These nations had continuously tried to conquer the southern kingdom after successfully defeating and taking the Israelites as captives. The Babylonians later succeed under the kingship of Nebuchadnezzar.

God declares of his choice of Israel as his earthly kingdom with his ruling city at Mt. Zion. God states that he chose Zion from all the places on earth as his earthly habitat, thus making all enemies of Zion, God’s personal enemies while friends of Zion and Judah are friends of God. He also states that he shall use his Kingdom in Israel to subdue the enemies until they are humbled. This represents the belief that God’s Judean kingdom will rule forever and have dominion over all the other nations that are enemies of Judah. The kingdom is blessed and thus friends of the kingdom are blessed through it while its enemies will be defeated and diminished through it.

YHWH was considered the provider and sole protector of the Judean Monarch.It was God who fought battles for the kingdom of Judah, under all the kingdoms that tried to conquer was YHWH who defeated the Assyrians under King Hezekiah, confusing their troops and leading them to Libnah. Apart from their military strength, the Judean Monarch also put their belief and trust in God as their fortress and rock under which no harm could reach the kingdom. The only condition that guaranteed their protection was that they had to keep his statutes and be righteous in their conduct.All the anointed kings who ruled justly and in righteousness were assured of victory and a good reign protected from all enemies. God always empowered kings who worshipped and believed in him. He gave them power and strength to annihilate his enemies and the enemies of Judah, regardless of the size of their armies. Kings who worshipped foreign gods and practiced idolatry were to be challenged and defeated in all their plans. Psalms 110 declares that the Judean Kingdom will rule for eternity subduing all the earth. This means the later kingdom established by God through his son Jesus of the tribe of Judah, whose kingdom shall rule forever (Mowinkel 1962, 2).


Psalms describes the start and end of the Judean Monarch. From David to Zedekiah the last king, all the kings come from the tribe of Judah, family of Jesse and the Davidic lineage. God declares that he has established his kingdom in Mt. Zion which represents the Judean Monarch. From the Psalms 132 God declares that he has anointed the Davidic line to act as the earthly representatives of his royal kingdom until the end of times. This meant that the Judean Monarch was a true monarchy with the only people who could be kings being direct descendants of David, in order to fulfill God’s promise that the Davidic line will rule forever as his anointed lineage.

The appointed princes generally took over the kingship after the death of the king. Each king appointed a successor to prevent instances of conflict for the throne among his children. As the appointed of God, just and righteous kings were assured of God’s support in their reign by defeating their enemies and blessing their initiatives. Kings who went against the Lord were isolated and faced challenges and defeat from all sides from their tributes, neighboring kingdoms, droughts and famines. The king was the custodian of the Judeans in terms of security, religion, and development. The king therefore determined what the people worshipped and their relation with Yahweh. Evil kings made the monarch suffer while righteous kings blessed the monarch. With God as their protector and fortress, righteous kings were able to face stronger opposition from enemies such as Aram, Egypt and Assyria since God fought on their side (Bridge 2009, 360-378).

Psalms 110 states of the fact that God will fulfill his covenant with David where he shall establish an everlasting kingdom. A descendant of David from the lineage of Melchizedek (a messianic priest with no birth roots who Abraham paid a tithe and the first King of Jerusalem) was to take over the reign of Mt. Zion, freeing the Jews and all righteous from captivity and rule of evil. This represents of the belief of Babylonian captives that the Judean Monarch did not end with the fall of Jerusalem, but rather that God would send a messiah from the lineage of David who would establish an eternal kingdom and fetch all Jews from all the four corners of the earth. The messiah can be understood to be Jesus, who according to Psalms 2 will rule the earth for eternity after obliterating the enemies of God’s people.

Psalms 72 clearly indicates the extent to which God was willing to strengthen the Judean Monarch. As indicated God the kings who obeyed his statutes fully and ruled the people justly. A righteous reign guaranteed success and dominion over other kingdoms. Some of the countries that were to be conquered, bow to Zion and pay tributes to Judah includes Sheba and Seba representing that the kingdom would go as far south as Ethiopia which then represented Africa to the Eastern ends of Asia, Tarshish and all other worldly kings. Some of the Judean kings received tribute from Tyre and Tarshish, and who later rebelled against the Judean Monarch.


The Judean monarch had its foundation in the rule of YHWH as the creator and heavenly king. His laws were what governed the Judean Monarch. Some of the sources of the Judean laws were established under the 10 commandments which were given to Moses directly from God. Most of the commandments insist of the need to preserve only one God, YHWH who had delivered them from slavery. The commandments also advocated for righteous and justice among all a person’s action. Other civic interactions were guided by the laws given by Moses in the Torah for issues such as marriage, transactions, business and solving disputes (Whitelam 1986, 166-173)

All Judeans with God as their patron were expected to be righteous in their undertakings. This meant being truthful, just, loving the neighbor, fairness, worshipping only YHWH and keeping the Lord statutes. This was expected of every person from the king to the peasant. God being Omni-present always saw all actions of man and he blessed the good while punishing the evil. This applied to individual or state matters. It was the duty of the king appointed by YHWH to lead the people to righteousness by destroying foreign deities and being a role model to the people. In Psalms 101 God declares that in his kingdom, i.e. Judean Monarch there will be no space for the evil doers and people who practice deceit, instead his kingdom is for the faithful and just.

Priests and prophets

The role of the priest is highly regarded in the Judean Monarch. They acted as the link between all the people with God. They delivered God’s will to kings as well as the rest of the Judeans. They did not participate in any other activity except dedicating their lives to Yahweh. They received their sustenance from tithes and sacrifices from the people and received protection by the state. In Psalms 132 the ideal Judean kingdom will have their priests glorified through the Lord, receive salvation and always be joyful to YHWH their master.


Psalms teach us a great deal about the Judean Monarch. The first thing is that the kingdom though on earth is blessed from heaven and is God’s dwelling place as represented by the temple in Jerusalem. God is the universal king and he chose Judah as his kingdom on earth. This means that Judean Monarch was led by God through his commandments and statutes. God also chose the Davidic line as the everlasting rulers of his kingdom. As the king, rock, shelter and protector, YHWH blessed kings who followed his statutes while evil kings were punished. Psalms also discusses of the actual ancient Judean Monarch ruled by the kings of Judah until the captivity to Babylon, but also of a future kingdom with its roots in Judah where one of David’s sons will rise, conquer and rule the earth forever. This means the Judean monarch will rule forever through Jesus as king.


Bridge,Edward , ‘Loyalty, Dependency and Status with YHWH: the use of ‘bd in the Psalms’, (Rome: VetusTestamentum2009), 360-378.

Grant, Jamie, ‘The Psalms and the King’, in Interpreting the Psalms: Issues and Approaches (New York: Johnson, 2011), 139-187.

Mowinkel,Simmon, The Psalms in Israel’s Worship (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1962) ch3.

Whitelam,Walters, ‘The Symbols of Power: Aspects of Royal Propaganda in the United Monarchy’, (Florida: Biblical Archaeologist 1986) 166-173.